What is a Value Stock
📺 "𝙑𝙖𝙡𝙪𝙚 𝙎𝙩𝙤𝙘𝙠𝙨 𝙤𝙪𝙩𝙥𝙚𝙧𝙛𝙤𝙧𝙢 𝙂𝙧𝙤𝙬𝙩𝙝 𝙎𝙩𝙤𝙘𝙠𝙨 𝙩𝙝𝙞𝙨 𝙮𝙚𝙖𝙧" You're going to hear this on CNBC and then they will compare a value ETF $VTV with a Growth ETF $VUG and even the S&P 500 $SPX500 . But most of these stocks on the Value ETFs are not really value stocks. What is a value stock?
💸 A value investor is someone who understands the 𝙙𝙞𝙛𝙛𝙚𝙧𝙚𝙣𝙘𝙚 𝙗𝙚𝙩𝙬𝙚𝙚𝙣 𝙫𝙖𝙡𝙪𝙚 𝙖𝙣𝙙 𝙥𝙧𝙞𝙘𝙚. A business has an intrinsic value, regardless of the stock price. Value investors look for market inefficiencies, where the value of a stock is higher than the price, then they buy after taking a margin of safety.
💰 The simplest way to 𝙘𝙖𝙡𝙘𝙪𝙡𝙖𝙩𝙚 𝙩𝙝𝙚 𝙞𝙣𝙩𝙧𝙞𝙣𝙨𝙞𝙘 𝙫𝙖𝙡𝙪𝙚 𝙤𝙛 𝙖 𝙘𝙤𝙢𝙥𝙖𝙣𝙮 is its liquidation value. If a stock is selling at less than its tangible book value, it is likely to be a value stock. Normally a stock selling under its tangible book value is called a deep value stock. Of course, if the stock is selling under its cash value and it doesn't have much debt it is even better. I can give the example of GameStop $GME when I started investing in it in September 2019. It was selling under its net cash value and tangible book value. In other words, you could repay all the debt and have more cash than the then market cap of the company. You could also liquidate the company, repay all liabilities and be left with more cash than you invested.
🔢 The father of Value Investing, Benjamin Graham, gives us in The Intelligent Investor, some simple metrics to know if a stock is cheap or not such as the Graham Number or the Net Current Asset Value. But I don't rely much on metrics. An example of a stock selling under its Graham Number and NCAV is Qudian $QD .
💰 But the best way to find the intrinsic value of a company according to Warren Buffett is to look at the sum of the discounted owner's earnings till judgement day. This is a way to calculate 𝙝𝙤𝙬 𝙢𝙪𝙘𝙝 𝙚𝙖𝙧𝙣𝙞𝙣𝙜𝙨 𝙩𝙝𝙚 𝙘𝙤𝙢𝙥𝙖𝙣𝙮 𝙘𝙖𝙣 𝙞𝙣 𝙩𝙝𝙚𝙤𝙧𝙮 𝙧𝙚𝙩𝙪𝙧𝙣 𝙩𝙤 𝙨𝙝𝙖𝙧𝙚𝙝𝙤𝙡𝙙𝙚𝙧𝙨 𝙤𝙫𝙚𝙧 𝙞𝙩𝙨 𝙡𝙞𝙛𝙚𝙩𝙞𝙢𝙚. We need to discount the future since money today has more value than money in the future.
Always make sure to take a margin of safety and to stay in your circle of competence. Don't invest in a business just because some numbers say that it is cheap.
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